# Which of the following would not affect the break-even point? a number of units sold b. variable expense per unit c. total fixed expenses d. selling price per unit In investing, the breakeven point is the point at which the original cost equals the market price. Meanwhile, the breakeven point in options trading occurs when the market price of an underlying asset reaches the level at which a buyer will not incur a loss. Break-even analysis is a financial tool that is widely used by businesses as well as stock and option traders. For businesses, break-even analysis is essential in determining the minimum sales volume required to cover total costs and break even. It helps businesses make informed decisions about pricing strategies, cost management, and operations. The concept of break-even analysis is concerned with the contribution margin of a product.

• The break-even point is the level of activity at which total revenues equal total costs.
• When that happens, the break-even point also goes up because of the additional expense.
• That allows the put buyer to sell 100 shares of Meta stock (META) at \$180 per share until the option’s expiration date.
• In the first calculation, divide the total fixed costs by the unit contribution margin.

The contribution margin is the excess between the selling price of the product and the total variable costs. For example, if an item sells for \$100, the total fixed costs are \$25 per unit, and the total variable costs are \$60 per unit, the contribution margin of the product is \$40 (\$100 – \$60). This \$40 reflects the amount of revenue collected to cover the remaining fixed costs, which are excluded when figuring the contribution margin.

## Examples Causing a Break-even Point to Increase

The contribution margin’s importance lies in the fact that it represents the amount of revenue required to cover a business’ fixed costs and contribute to its profit. Through the contribution margin calculation, a business can determine the break-even point and where it can begin earning a profit. The break-even point is a key tool for financial planning and decision-making because it can help a company to assess the financial implications of changing its level of production or sales. For example, a company may be considering expanding its production to meet increasing demand for its product. The company can use the break-even point to estimate the financial implications of this expansion. If the expansion will result in the company’s break-even point being reached earlier than projected, then this may be a sign that the expansion is not financially viable.

Upon the sale of 500 units, the payment of all fixed costs are complete, and the company will report a net profit or loss of \$0. The break-even point is the level of sales at which a company covers all of its costs. The break-even point changes with changes in the sales price because the company’s costs are fixed. With a higher sales price, the company will make more money per sale, and it will take fewer sales to cover the company’s costs. With a lower sales price, the company will make less money per sale, and it will take more sales to cover the company’s costs. The break-even point is the point at which the company’s revenues equal its costs.

To do this, calculate the contribution margin, which is the sale price of the product less variable costs. Assume a company has \$1 million in fixed costs and a gross margin of 37%. In this breakeven point example, the company must generate \$2.7 million in revenue to cover its fixed and variable costs. The breakeven formula for a business provides a dollar figure that is needed to break even. This can be converted into units by calculating the contribution margin (unit sale price less variable costs). Dividing the fixed costs by the contribution margin will provide how many units are needed to break even.

When your company reaches a break-even point, your total sales equal your total expenses. This means that you’re bringing in the same amount of money you need to cover all of your expenses and run your business. Assume an investor pays a \$4 premium for a Meta (formerly Facebook) put option with a \$180 strike price.

## How do you calculate a breakeven point in options trading?

Consider the following example in which an investor pays a \$10 premium for a stock call option, and the strike price is \$100. The breakeven point would equal the \$10 premium plus the \$100 strike price, or \$110. On the other hand, if this were applied to a put option, the breakeven point would be calculated as the \$100 strike price minus the \$10 premium paid, amounting to \$90. The break-even point represents the sales point where all costs are covered but no profit or loss is realized by the firm. The break-even point is a important consideration for companies when setting pricing and making decisions about which products or services to offer for sale.

The hard part of running a business is when customer sales or product demand remains the same while the price of variable costs increases, such as the price of raw materials. When that happens, the break-even point also goes up because of the additional expense. Aside from production costs, other costs that may increase include rent for a warehouse, increases in salaries for employees, or higher utility rates. The concept of ‘break-even point’ in economics is the point at which an economic entity’s revenue equals its total variable costs (including any borrowing costs) plus its total fixed costs. If revenue falls below this point, there is a loss and if it rises above it, there is a gain. Fourth, changes in fixed costs can influence the number of units that must be sold to reach the break-even point.

## Why is Break-Even Analysis Important to Stock and Option Traders?

Determine the break-even point in sales by finding your contribution margin ratio. When you decrease your variable costs per unit, it takes fewer units to break even. In this case, you would need to sell 150 units (instead of 240 units) to break even. Assume that an investor pays a \$5 premium for an Apple stock (AAPL) call option with a \$170 strike price. This means that the investor has the right to buy 100 shares of Apple at \$170 per share at any time before the options expire. The breakeven point for the call option is the \$170 strike price plus the \$5 call premium, or \$175.

### On Food as an Analytic of the System – Journal #138 – E-Flux

On Food as an Analytic of the System – Journal #138.

Posted: Wed, 06 Sep 2023 20:17:40 GMT [source]

If variable costs increase, then the break-even point will also increase; if variable costs decrease, then the break-even point will decrease. Second, a change in variable costs affects the break-even point because it changes the margin of safety. The margin of safety is the difference between total revenue and total costs at the break-even point. If variable costs increase, then the margin of safety will decrease; if variable costs decrease, then the margin of safety will increase.

## Call Option Breakeven Point Example

The contribution margin is the difference between a business’ sales revenue and its variable costs. A company’s contribution margin break-even point can be determined by dividing its total fixed costs by its contribution margin ratio. The contribution margin ratio is calculated by dividing a company’s contribution margin by its sales. For example, if a company has fixed costs of \$200,000 and a contribution margin of 20%, its contribution margin ratio would be 20% (\$200,000/\$1,000,000). Its contribution margin break-even point would be \$1,000,000 (200,000/0.2). In other words, the company would need to generate \$1,000,000 in sales in order to cover its fixed costs and break even. In addition, it’s a good idea to do a break-even analysis when you’re creating a new product, particularly if it’s particularly cost-intensive. Fixed costs are expenses that remain the same, regardless of how many sales you make. These are the expenses you pay to run your business, such as rent and insurance. Calculating breakeven points can be used when talking about a business or how to calculate annual income with traders in the market when they consider recouping losses or some initial outlay. Options traders also use the technique to figure out what price level the underlying price must be for a trade so that it expires in the money. A breakeven point calculation is often done by also including the costs of any fees, commissions, taxes, and in some cases, the effects of inflation.

Besides his extensive derivative trading expertise, Adam is an expert in economics and behavioral finance. Adam received his master’s in economics from The New School for Social Research and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in sociology. He is a CFA charterholder as well as holding FINRA Series 7, https://online-accounting.net/ 55 & 63 licenses. He currently researches and teaches economic sociology and the social studies of finance at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. To further understand the break-even point calculation, check out a few examples below. Take your learning and productivity to the next level with our Premium Templates.

• Break-even analysis looks at the level of fixed costs relative to the profit earned by each additional unit produced and sold.
• The first pieces of information required are the fixed costs and the gross margin percentage.
• It helps businesses make informed decisions about pricing strategies, cost management, and operations.

The break-even point indicates the number of units that must be sold in order to cover all costs. The contribution margin break-even point is the sales level at which total contribution margin equals total fixed costs. In other words, it is the point at which a company’s sales revenue covers its fixed costs, and it is also the sales level at which a company’s net income is zero. A company’s break-even point is important because it represents the level of sales at which the company neither makes a profit nor incurs a loss. Fixed costs are costs that do not fluctuate with changes in production or sales levels.

## What is the contribution margin break-even point?

If fixed costs increase, then more sales revenue will be required to reach the break-even point. Conversely, if fixed costs decrease, then less sales revenue will be needed. Fixed costs are costs that do not vary with the number of units sold, such as rent, salaries, and utilities. Variable costs are costs that do vary with the number of units sold, such as raw materials and commissions.